Volume 17: Pages 195-222, 2004
The Origin of the Generalized Mass‐Energy Equation ΔE = Ac2 ΔM and Its Applications in General Physics and Cosmology
Community Science Centre, DOE. Post Box 107, Shimla, 171001 HP India
Einstein's (September 1905) derivation theorizes that when light energy (L) is emanated by a luminous body, its mass diminishes as Δm = L/c2, and this equation is the speculative origin (without proof) of ΔE = c2 ΔM. The same derivation predicts that the mass of a luminous body inherently increases (Δm = −0.034 90L/cv + L/c2) when it emits light energy; in some cases, the mass of the body also remains the same (Δm = 0). An alternative equation, ΔE = Ac2 ΔM, has been suggested, that implies that energy emitted on the annihilation of mass (or vice versa) can be equal to, less than, or more than that predicted by ΔE = c2 ΔM. The total kinetic energy of fission fragments of U235 or Pu239 is found experimentally to be 20–60 MeV less than the Q value predicted by Δmc2, which can be explained with ΔE = Ac2 ΔM with a value of A less than one. ΔE = c2 ΔM has not yet been confirmed in chemical reactions. The energy emitted by gamma‐ray bursts (the most energetic event after the big bang) of duration 0.1–100 s is 1045 J, which cannot be explained by ΔE = Δmc2, similarly to the case of quasars. This can be explained with a high value of A, i.e., 2.57 ×1018. The mass of the particle Ds (2317) discovered at SLAC is lower than current estimates, which can be explained with a value of A more than one. ΔE = Ac2 ΔM explains that the mass of the universe of 1055 kg was created from a dwindling amount of energy (10−444 J or less), where A is 2.568 × 10−471 J or less, that in the end may reduce to small energy. It explains the big bang, the annihilation of antimatter in the hadron epoch, black holes, dark matter, etc. For the origin of inherent gravitational energy it implies that it is another form of mass like other energies, hence gravitation and mass are inseparable.
Keywords: mass, energy, alternative equation ΔE = Ac2ΔM, annihilation, Einstein's 27 September 1905 paper
Received: November 29, 2003; Published online: December 15, 2008