Volume 17: Pages 117-132, 2004
Model of Fundamental Particles II: Leptons
Stephan J. G. Gift
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, West Indies
A composite lepton model, based on quarks as the constituent elements, that improves the standard model is presented. The resulting enhanced standard model (ESM) accounts for the lepton generation puzzle and reveals the mechanism of the weak interaction among leptons, strange hadrons, and nonstrange hadrons. It phenomenologically explains a broad range of semileptonic and leptonic interaction phenomena, including the universal Fermi constant, the Cabibbo mechanism, the ΔS = ΔQ rule, the |ΔS| = 1 rule, the preponderance of nonleptonic over semileptonic decay, and the suppression of flavor‐changing neutral currents without invoking the Glashow‐Iliopoulos‐Maiani (GIM) mechanism. The ESM shows that, contrary to the accepted weak interaction theory of the standard model, the weak interaction conserves flavor as it does color. It prohibits proton decay in the manner predicted by grand unified theories (GUTs) and suggests the existence of a new vector particle that may already have been seen.
Keywords: composite particles, leptons, quarks, standard model, elementary particles, fluons, gluons, enhanced standard model, ESM, fundamental particles
Received: January 14, 2002; Published online: December 15, 2008