Volume 5: Pages 10-18, 1992
Atomicity of Charged Particles, the Question of Gauge Invariance, and Unification of Electricity and Gravity
C. Y. Lo 1
1Applied and Pure Research Institute, 315 Whytegate Court, Lake Forest, Illinois 60045 U.S.A.
Atomicity of charged particles and gauge invariance are intrinsic difficulties for current physical theories. It is shown that general five‐dimensional relativity would provide a theoretical basis for the atomicity of a charged particle. Concurrently, electromagnetic potentials are established as physical entities through their definite association with the momentum of a charged particle. Moreover, it is shown that, in contrast to current theories, gauge invariance in quantum theories can be compatible with electromagnetic potentials as physical entities. General five‐dimensional relativity provides a direct interaction between electromagnetic potentials and the momentum of a particle. This interaction implies violation of classical gauge invariance. The possibility of experimental tests is also discussed.
Keywords: atomicity, gauge invariance, five‐dimensional relativity, Kaluza‐Klein theory
Received: March 1, 1990; Published Online: December 15, 2008