Volume 6: Pages 473-486, 1993
The Proportional Expansion of Each and Every Celestial Body as the Cause of Gravitation
Claude R. Cahen 1
1201 Ocean Avenue, 1109 P., Santa Monica, California 90402 U.S.A.
Since our solar system is part of an ever‐expanding universe, there are no logical or physical grounds to rule out the possible effects of this expansion at the scale of our solar system. However, this phenomenon of expansion has been totally overlooked for the following reasons: (1) All our reference systems, all our measuring instruments being part of this very same frame of reference, are, out of our own awareness, expanding coherently with the universe. (2) This geometric expansion of each and every celestial body in the universe is absolutely coherent, proportional for each body to both its radius and its density. (3) The geometric expansion of the empty space of the universe is proportional to its own density and is therefore extremely slow. Thus it took the multiplicative factor of extreme distances translating into the observed “redshift” to unmask the phenomenon of expansion of the universe. By applying Einstein's principle of equivalence to this geometrically expanding universe, the relation between the surface of the Earth and Newton's apple can be described in a totally new way. We show that, paradoxically, the “true” motion of the apple in the universe is a vertical “upward drift” at constant speed, while the ground of the planet “catches up” to the apple following the constantly accelerated expansion of the radius of the Earth. A feasible experimental confirmation is proposed. We propose a “universal constant of expansion,” E, which applies to any matter of any density D and any radius R in the universe: E = G 4/3 π; its numerical value is 2.793 538 × 10−10 m3 kg−1 s−2, giving to any matter in the universe a radial expansion e such that e = EDR. The structural heterogenicity of the Earth and the different densities of the mantle and the crust may explain the slightly heterogeneous expansion of the planet. This heterogeneous expansion leads to the rupture of the rigid crust in several continents and their subsequent drift apart. The rates of expansion of different celestial bodies are compared, and it is found that, in particular, the effect of the radial expansion of two or more nucleons results in a small cohesive force inside the nucleus of the atoms. This force of cohesion is then compared to the cohesive force generated by classic Newtonian attraction and found to be almost identical. We conclude that what we call “gravitation” is not an active force generated by the phenomenon of universal attraction as depicted by Newton, but simply an apparent “fictitious” force generated by the geometric proportional radial expansion of all heavenly bodies of the universe. In terms of quantum mechanics the very existence of the predicted graviton becomes extremely questionable.
Keywords: Einstein's principle of equivalence, expansion of the universe, external universe, Hubble constant, continental drift, gravitation, reference system, Newton's laws of mechanics
Received: May 3, 1990; Published Online: December 15, 2008