Volume 20: Pages 334-337, 2007
Renormalization of Vacuum Energy
Kenneth J. Epstein 1
16400 North Sheridan, #2604, Chicago, Illinois 60626‐5331, U.S.A.
The absurdly large vacuum energy density ρν predicted by quantum field theory is reduced by a negative cosmological constant Λ < 0 to a renormalized vacuum energy ρν′ ≡ ρν + Λ/(8π), which can be positive or negative. Three inflation eras, due to three symmetry breakings, are explained by large positive values of ρν′. The big bang is explained as a singularly inflationary symmetry breaking that ended the Planck era and began the grand unified era. Accelerating expansion in the present era is explained by a small intergalactic ρν′ > 0 interpreted as dark energy. It is then shown how intragalactic ρν′ < 0 can simulate dark matter by creating a generalized Schwarzschild—anti‐de Sitter metric with a gravitational harmonic oscillator potential that Newtonian physics attributes to a uniform halo of dark matter.
Keywords: negative cosmological constant, vacuum energy renormalization, vacuum pressure renormalization, dark energy, dark matter
Received: June 4, 2007; Published Online: March 26, 2009