Volume 20: Pages 564-592, 2007
Increasing Exclusion: The Pauli Exclusion Principle and Energy Conservation for Bound Fermions are Mutually Exclusive
Jonathan Phillips 1
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 U.S.A.
A review is given of forms of standard quantum mechanics, including the Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) as it is applied to atomic species (i.e., versions of the quantum that are multi‐electron and multi‐orbital), that are not consistent with energy conservation. Particular focus is given to helium, in which it is shown that energy conservation is not consistent with current models. If the two electrons in the ground state, per current theory, are at the same energy as the ionization energy, it is demonstrated that according to the standard theory approximately 30 eV are lost during ionization or, alternatively, about 30 eV of energy are created during ionization/electron attachment. The same issue of energy loss during relaxation of energy levels following ionization is shown to exist for all atomic species, thus demonstrating that the PEP and energy conservation are not consistent for any atomic species for current forms of distinguishable electron forms of quantum theory. Only that form of quantum that has a single orbital, and for which only one ionization energy can be computed (i.e., the original Schrödinger form), is consistent with an energy balance. However, this form is not consistent with the most common spectroscopy results, and it is shown that the PEP has no meaning in this form of quantum theory. In contrast, a new model of quantum mechanics, classical quantum mechanics (CQM), invented by R. Mills, is shown, following modification, to be consistent with all spectroscopy and energy conservation for bound electron systems. This new model is based on the validity of Maxwell's equations and Newton's laws at all scales. Detailed, and remarkably simple, computations for determining the ground‐state energy levels in one‐ and two‐electron systems using CQM are presented. Excellent agreement with data is found.
Keywords: quantum mechanics, Pauli exclusion principle, energy conservation, helium, classical quantum mechanics
Received: October 12, 2006; Published Online: October 7, 2009