For purchase of this item, please read the instructions.
Volume 11: Pages 541-562, 1998
Wavelength Radiated by Aging Starlight
Chester J. Marcinkowski
113 Sargent Drive, Snyder, New York 14226‐4066 U.S.A.
A thermodynamic approach is used to calculate the EM wavelength radiated by an average‐aged photon of starlight with wavelength λa 1.76 μm and energy wa = hc/λa. A needle‐shaped photon volume V is estimated partly from previous work to give a photon energy density ua = wa/V. The surface temperature Ta of this photon model is deduced by applying the standard thermodynamic relation ua = aTa4, where the constant a is known. The result is a photon surface temperature Ta 3 K for an average‐aged photon of starlight. This aging photon is assumed to radiate roughly like a blackbody. Another thermodynamic relation then provides a most likely radiated frequency vm (and hence radiated photon energy) at the peak of the blackbody spectrum. The resulting wavelength is λm 0.510/Ta 0.2 cm. The corresponding wavelength of the cosmic microwave radiation is λm″ 0.187 cm. This suggests that some portion of the cosmic microwave radiation might be produced by aging photons of starlight. A survey is made of the evidence favoring the photon as a needle‐shaped object.
Keywords: cosmic microwave radiation, Hubble constant, redshift, photons, cosmology, electromagnetic theory
Received: December 4, 1997; Published online: December 15, 2008