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Volume 13: Pages 540-554, 2000
A Procedure for Extending Quantum Theory to Include Gravity
G. A. Rodley
RD2 Picton, New Zealand
A procedure is presented for extending quantum electrodynamics (QED) so that gravity can be incorporated. This is based on identifying virtual photons as components of electron waves that permeate space and constitute the vacuum state. These waves are described as solitonic de Broglie B waves that are shown to arise from the participation of all matter electrons in a global particle/wave interconversion process. Electrons of atoms intermittently convert to soliton waves, as determined by known quantum probability and ionization energy values. Transiently electron‐deficient atoms regain particle electrons from local overlap of components of the soliton waves of the vacuum state. This is the basis of a universal electron‐exchange process that produces the forces of gravity and inertia. A coherent integration of existing information is achieved, based on formative calculations of basic relationships. A derivation of the gravitational expression is presented that yields a physical description of the gravitational constant. It is demonstrated that the exchange process provides explanations of van der Waals forces and the Casimir effect that are quantitatively equivalent to QED ones. Electron exchange is shown to be consistent with current QED and to provide new insights into various other phenomena. Modifications to QED required for the incorporation of gravity are defined in terms of reinterpretations of zero point energy (ZPE) and the nature of the vacuum state.
Keywords: quantum electrodynamics, zero point energy, vacuum state, electron exchange, van der Waals, Casimir, gravity, inertia
Received: October 30, 1998; Published online: December 15, 2008