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Volume 15: Pages 101-112, 2002
Superfluid Quasi Photons in the Early Universe
50 Windsor Drive, Princeton Junction, New Jersey 08550 U.S.A.
From the point of view of the well‐known laws of the special theory of relativity, the classical and quantum theories of vacuum electromagnetic fields, and statistical thermodynamics, it is shown that the newly born inflationary universe is an extremely high density and high temperature neutral matter‐antimatter plasma with perfect matter‐antimatter symmetry full of quasi‐photon gas due to pair production and buildup of black‐body radiation. The “bare” photons in vacuum gooverasthe “dressed” quasi photons in the plasmon field of the matter‐antimatter plasma. Each “bare” photon is “dressed” with a single plasmon to form a quasi photon. These quasi photons, being nonzero‐mass bosons, will undergo Bose‐Einstein (B‐E) condensation at the appropriate superfluid condensation temperature T0. Thus, the early inflationary big‐bang universe, after cooling through the spontaneous symmetry‐breaking phase transition for the Higgs fields around T ≈ 1027 K, must then cool through the superfluid quasi‐photon B‐E phase transitions, first in the pair‐produced baryon‐antibaryon plasmas around 1016 ≥ T ≈ T0 ≥ 1014 K, and then in the pair‐produced lepton‐antilepton plasmas around 1012 ≥ T ≈ T0 ≥ 1011 K. A few other relevant problems regarding the physical properties of photons and quasi photons are also discussed.
Keywords: superfluid quasi photons, early universe, Bose‐Einstein condensation, photon mass, matter‐antimatter plasmas, baryon‐antibaryon plasmas, leptonantilepton plasmas, relativistic plasmas, pair‐production thresholds, dressed quasi photons, quasi‐photon mass, ultrarelativistic plasmas
Received: August 24, 1999; Published online: December 15, 2008