16. Kenneth J. Epstein, Renormalization of Vacuum Energy

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Volume 20: Pages 334-337, 2007

Renormalization of Vacuum Energy

Kenneth J. Epstein 1

16400 North Sheridan, #2604, Chicago, Illinois 606265331, U.S.A.

The absurdly large vacuum energy density ρν predicted by quantum field theory is reduced by a negative cosmological constant Λ < 0 to a renormalized vacuum energy ρν ≡ ρν + Λ/(8π), which can be positive or negative. Three inflation eras, due to three symmetry breakings, are explained by large positive values of ρν. The big bang is explained as a singularly inflationary symmetry breaking that ended the Planck era and began the grand unified era. Accelerating expansion in the present era is explained by a small intergalactic ρν > 0 interpreted as dark energy. It is then shown how intragalactic ρν < 0 can simulate dark matter by creating a generalized Schwarzschild—antide Sitter metric with a gravitational harmonic oscillator potential that Newtonian physics attributes to a uniform halo of dark matter.

Keywords: negative cosmological constant, vacuum energy renormalization, vacuum pressure renormalization, dark energy, dark matter

Received: June 4, 2007; Published Online: March 26, 2009