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Volume 12: Pages 346-357, 1999
Gravitational Tunneling Radiation
Armor Research, 715 Lakemead Way, Redwood City, CA 94062‐3922 U.S.A.
The isolated black‐hole radiation of both Hawking and Zel'dovich is an idealized ion, as there is always another body to distort the potential. This is considered with respect to both gravitational tunneling and black‐hole “no‐hair” theorems. The effects of a second body are to lower the gravitational barrier of a black hole and to give the barrier a finite rather than infinite width so that a particle can escape by tunneling (as in field emission) or over the top of the lowered barrier (as in Schottky emission). Thus, radiation may be emitted from black holes in a process differing from that of Hawking radiation, PSH, which has been undetected for over 24 years. The radiated power from a black hole derived here is PR ∞ e−2ΔγPSH, where e−2Δγ is the transmission probability for radiation through the barrier. This is similar to electric‐field emission of electrons from a metal in that the emission can in principle be modulated and beamed. The temperature and entropy of black holes are reexamined. Minuscule black holes herein may help explain the missing mass of the universe, accelerated expansion of the universe, and anomalous rotation of spiral galaxies. A gravitational interference effect for black‐hole radiation similar to the Aharonov‐Bohm effect is also examined.
Keywords: Hawking‐Zel'dovich radiation, black holes, gravitational tunneling, universe expansion, galaxy rotation, Aharonov‐Bohm effect, hairy black holes, entropy
Received: February 17, 1999; Published online: December 15, 2008